The history of tertiary education is distinct from other forms of education, with some universities among the oldest learning institutions in the world. The development of universities, and higher education more generally, over the course of the last millennium is closely tied to religion. Universities were established as organizations free from direct control of the church or other religious institutions, a privilege usually granted by the king or state. This privilege allowed for academic freedom to question, research and advance knowledge. Religious studies remained an important focus in most early medieval universities. In the modern world universities have two purposes: equip students with advanced skills useful in the workplace and to further human knowledge and understanding of the world.
More information on the rise of education across the world is available here, while a more detailed discussion of the returns to higher education can be found here.
# Empirical View
This section covers both the historical perspective on higher education as well as recent trends and future projections.
# Share of the population with tertiary education
# Enrollment in tertiary education
The chart shows the rise of the gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education across world regions. It is possible to add particular countries to this plot (by clicking ‘add countries’) or to view this on a world map (by switching to the map view).
# School life expectancy to tertiary education
# International mobility of students
The map below shows the share of students studying abroad. A corresponding map showing the share of students arriving from abroad can be seen here.
# The Historical Perspective: Religion and Higher Education
In the past, there were very few higher education institutions since only a small fraction of the population was able to read or write. During this early period, centers of education mostly had a religious focus and trained clergy. In Western Europe these centers were monasteries, while in the Islamic world these were madrasas. The following table shows the increasing number of monasteries in Western Europe between the 6th and the 15th century.
# The Secularization of Higher Education in Europe
The number of all monasteries in Western Europe is displayed below. Between the end of the first millennium and the 13th century the number grew rapidly, before coming to a halt and declining.
At the same time evolved a new form of a higher education institution: the university. These secular institutions began to rise as monasteries slowly started to decline, and the religious powers lost their monopoly on higher education. Still, this was only the beginning; as late as the 18th century there were still fewer than 100 universities in Western Europe.
The raw data on monasteries and universities in Europe over the long-run published by Buringh and Van Zanden is available on a separate page.
Total number of monasteries and total number of universities in Western Europe, 600-18001
# Higher Education Today and into the Future
The following visualisations show estimations and projections from 1970 to 2050 of higher education by country. The numbers completing degrees is expected to increase around the world as advanced skills become more important in both developing and developed economies. For more information on how these projections are constructed, visit the projections of future education page here.
# Correlates, Determinants, and Consequences
# Data Sources
# UNESCO Institute of Statistics
- Data: Comprehensive data on enrollments, out-of-school children, repetition, completion, gender, teachers, education expenditures, learning outcomes, educational attainment, education equality, literacy, population, labor, and EMIS.
- Geographical coverage: Global by country
- Time span: 1999-2015
- Available at: http://data.uis.unesco.org/
# World Bank EdStats
- Data: indicators on educational attainment, enrolment, attendance, teachers, financing and more
- Geographical coverage: Global, over 200 countries
- Time span: 1970 to most recent data year; Projections to 2050
- Available at: It is online here
# Historical monasteries data – Van Zanden
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten. The long road to the industrial revolution: the European economy in a global perspective, 1000-1800. Vol. 1. Brill, 2009.
- Data: Number of monasteries by country
- Geographical coverage: Western Europe
- Time span: 600-1600
- Available at: http://www.brill.com/long-road-industrial-revolution
# Historical universities data – Buringh and Van Zanden
Buringh, Eltjo, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. “Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, a long-term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries.” The Journal of Economic History 69, no. 02 (2009): 409-445.
- Data: Number of universities by country
- Geographical coverage: Western Europe
- Time span: 1200-1800
- Available at: The Journal of Economic History
# Population and Human Capital Projections- International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
- Data: Educational by level of attainment, population projections
- Geographical coverage:
- Education: 120 countries
- Population: 190 countries
- Time span: 1970-2050
- Education: 1970-2050
- Population: 1970-2100
- Available at: