# Empirical View
# Recent Developments
# Teacher to Pupil Ratios
Schools require many different inputs to produce educated individuals, of which teachers and textbooks are the most fundamental. In addition to these basic resources, better schools often have better facilities and equipment. Access to the internet and computers is also increasingly important in education. Given this, it is common to consider school quality through proxies like expenditure per student, or the pupil-teacher ratio of a school.
# Training of teachers
Sustainable Development Goal 4.C is to “substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers” and the suggested indicators to measure the progress towards this goal is “Proportion of teachers in: (a) pre-primary; (b) primary; (c) lower secondary; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) pre-service or in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country.” The latest data on these indicators can be accessed through the following maps:
- Share of teachers in pre-primary education who are trained
- Share of teachers in primary education who are trained
- Share of teachers in secondary education who are trained
- Share of teachers in lower secondary education who are trained
- Share of teachers in upper secondary education who are trained
# Salaries of teachers
# Sex ratios of teachers
# Correlates, Determinants & Consequences
# Teacher Quality
Research by Raj Chetty, John Friedman and Jonah Rockoff supports the idea that the quality of teachers make a significant difference to the performance of students on tests. Chetty et al. look at the impact on test scores of the entry and exit of high or low value added teachers on students performance in examinations. They find that not only does the entry of a high quality teacher improve the results of students, the presence of ‘bad teachers’ negatively impacts the performance of students. In addition to this, they also report that this improvement in test scores corresponds to long-term improvements in the outcomes of students.