Each variable shows the difference between percent women minus percent men. I.e. in 1981, 21.5% of men and 9.2% of women held managerial jobs, amounting to a gender gap of 12.3%. 0% thus represents parity, and negative values indicate a higher incidence of women than men. “Male” professional jobs refer to those more often held by men and thus excluding nurses and K–12 and other non-college teachers.
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