World map of average annual nitrogen balance (pounds per acre) – National Geographic1
The following graph shows the increase over the very long run.
Total global pesticide production and global pesticide imports, 1940s-2000 – Tillman et al. (2002)2
Estimated worldwide annual sales of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and others) in billions of dollars, 1960-1999 – Agrios (2005)3
Annual usage of the various types of pesticides (in millions of pounds of active ingredient) and annual cost of pesticides (in millions of dollars) in the United States, 1980-1999 – Agrios (2005)4
Total world pesticide consumption by world region, 1994-1997 – Heisey and Norton (2007)5
Herbicides Insecticides Fungicides China NA NA NA India 6.8 37.2 9.4 Other Asia 24.4 41 19.2 Middle East/North Africa 9.7 19.5 14.1 Sub-Saharan Africa 11.7 9.7 9 Latin America/Caribbean 85.8 39.8 31.8 All developing 138.4 147.2 83.6 Transitional 35.6 7.9 23.2 Industrialized 337.8 163.4 190.4 World 511.8 318.4 297.2
|Middle East/North Africa||9.7||19.5||14.1|
Results of residue monitoring on domestic and imported foods by the Food and Drug Administration, 1988-1994 – Agrios (2005)6
Legend: green line - no pesticide residues, blue line - residues within legal limits, brown line - residues that were over the tolerance allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency
Pesticide residue levels in human adipose tissue and human milk in USA, 1970-1983, United Kingdom, 1963-1983, and Japan, 1976-1985 – Simon (1996) - The State of Humanity7
World fertilizer use and grainland area per person, (1950-94) – Brown (1995)8
Grain production in Australia, China, South America, and United States relative to nitrogen fertilizer use, 1961-2002 – Hatfield and Prueger (2004)9
Loss of food production due to diseases, insects and weeds – Agrios (2005)10
Attainable crop production (2002 prices) $1.5 trillion Actual crop production (-36.5%) $950 billion Production without crop protection $455 billion Losses prevented by crop protection $415 billion Actual annual losses to world crop production $550 billion Losses caused by diseases only (14.1%) $220 billion
|Attainable crop production (2002 prices)||$1.5 trillion|
|Actual crop production (-36.5%)||$950 billion|
|Production without crop protection||$455 billion|
|Losses prevented by crop protection||$415 billion|
|Actual annual losses to world crop production||$550 billion|
|Losses caused by diseases only (14.1%)||$220 billion|
Late blight of potato and the Irish famine: itinerary of the potato blight – Agrios (2005)11
The map below shows the itinerary of the advance of the potato blight between June, when the blight was first detected in Belgium, and the end of October 1845, by which time it spread from Italy to Ireland and from Spain to the Scandinavian countries.
Map of the history of spread of ergot of sorghum, caused primarily by the fungus Claviceps africana, around the world – Agrios (2005)12
The UN's Food and Agricultural Organisation gives the following definition of Pesticides13: 'Pesticides refer to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, disinfectants and any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies. The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit, and substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport.
The FAO Fertilizer Database is online here. It includes several datasets on fertilizers for countries and world regions since 2002.
The FAO Pesticides Use Database is online here. It includes several datasets on pesticides for countries and world regions since 1990. The FAO's Pesticides Trade Database goes back to 1961 and is online here.