Which sources does our global energy come from? How much is low-carbon?

Today the global energy mix is made up of a diverse range of sources: biomass, coal, oil, gas, nuclear and a range of renewables including hydropower, solar and wind.

In 2020, the global primary energy mix was made up of:

  • Coal: 27.6%
  • Oil: 31.6%
  • Gas: 25%
  • Nuclear: 4.4%
  • Hydropower: 7%
  • Wind: 2.6%
  • Solar: 1.4%
  • Other renewables: 0.5%

This means that about 16% of our energy came from low-carbon sources: nuclear accounted for just over 4%, with the remaining 12% coming from renewable technologies.

Note that these figures do not include traditional biomass, which can be a main source of energy in low-income countries. This is because this source is harder to quantify and only commercially traded energy is included in this data.