Social Spending

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Max Roser (2016) – ‘Social Spending’. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/social-spending/ [Online Resource]

 

# Empirical View

# Tax-based social spending (as % of gross national product) in the early modern countries, 18th & 19th century – Lindert (2004)1

CountryYearRelief for the PoorSpending on Public Education
Belgium18201.03%
18500.28%0.38%
England and Wales17761.59%0%
1820-18212.66%0%
18501.07%0.07%
France18330.63%0.13%
Netherlands17901.70%
18221.36%
18501.38%0.29%
Sweden18290.02%
United States18500.13%0.33%%
All other countries1776–1815Zero or negligibleZero or negligible

 

# Social transfers in OECD countries as percentages of gross domestic product at current prices, 1880-1995 – Max Roser2

# Social transfers in OECD countries as percentages of gross domestic product at current prices, 1880-1995 – Lindert (2004)3

 1880189019001910192019301960"1970"1980"1980*1990*1995*
Australia0001.121.662.117.397.3712.7910.9013.5714.84
Austria000001.2015.8818.923.2723.4324.5421.39
Belgium0.170.220.260.430.520.5613.1419.2630.3822.4523.1127.13
Canada00000.060.319.1211.8014.9612.9117.3818.09
Denmark0.961.111.411.752.713.1112.2619.1327.4526.4426.9730.86
Finland0.660.760.780.900.852.978.8113.5619.1918.3224.6631.65
France0.460.540.570.810.641.0513.4216.6822.5522.9523.7026.93
Germany0.500.530.59. .. .4.8218.119.5325.6620.4219.8524.92
Greece000000.0710.449.0311.068.6713.9514.43
Ireland3.748.7011.8919.1916.2018.0518.30
Italy000000.0813.116.9421.2417.1021.3423.71
Japan0.050.110.170.180.180.214.055.7211.9410.4811.5712.24
Netherlands0.290.300.390.390.991.0311.7022.4528.3426.9427.5925.7
New Zealand0.170.391.091.351.842.4310.379.2215.2216.2222.1218.64
Norway1.070.951.241.181.092.397.8516.1320.9918.5026.4427.55
Portugal000000. .. .. .10.1012.6215.23
Spain0000.020.040.07. .. .. .12.9717.0119.01
Sweden0.720.850.851.031.142.5910.8316.7625.9429.7832.1833.01
Switzerland. .. .. .. .. .1.174.928.4914.33. .. .18.87
U.K.0.860.8311.381.392.2410.2113.2016.4216.9418.0522.52
U.S.0.290.450.550.560.700.567.2610.3815.0311.4311.6813.67
Median0.290.390.550.690.781.6610.4114.8420.0921.3624.0022.52
# Income levels and total social transfers around the world in 1990 vs historical paths, 1880-1995 – Lindert (2004)4

Income Levels and Total Social Transfers around the World in 1990 versus Historical Paths 1880–1995 - Lindert (2004)

# Public social spending in percentage of GDP, 1960-2012 – OECD5

Public social spending in percentage of GDP (1960-2012) - OECD

 

# Public and private social expenditure in percentage of GDP, 2009 – OECD6

Public and private social expenditure in percentage of GDP in 2009 - OECD

 

# Mandatory and voluntary private social spending in percentage of GDP, 1980-2003 – OECD7

Mandatory and voluntary private social spending, in percentage of GDP, 1980 to 2003 - OECD

# Public social expenditure by broad social policy area in percentage of GDP, 2003 – OECD8

Public social expenditure by broad social policy area, in percentage of GDP, in 2003 - OECD

# Data Sources

# Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Social Expenditure Database
  • Data: Statistics on public and private social expenditure and net social spending indicators
  • Geographical coverage: 34 OECD countries
  • Time span: 1980-2011 and estimates for 2012-2014
  • Available at: Online here