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Coronavirus (COVID-19) CasesStatistics and Research

We are grateful to everyone whose editorial review and expert feedback on this work helps us to continuously improve our work on the pandemic. Thank you. Here you find the acknowledgements.

The data on the coronavirus pandemic is updated daily. Last update: May 25, 2020 (11:30, London time).

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Country-by-country data on confirmed COVID-19 cases

This page has a large number of charts on the pandemic. In the box below you can select any country you are interested in – or several, if you want to compare countries.

All charts on this page will then show data for the countries that you selected.

None selected

What is the total number of confirmed cases?

This chart shows the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases.

What is important to note about these case figures?
  • the reported case figures on a given date does not necessarily show the number of new cases on that day: this is due to delays in reporting;
  • the actual number of cases is likely to be much higher than the number of confirmed cases – this is due to limited testing.

→ We provide more detail on these points in the section ‘Cases of COVID-19: background‘.

Five quick reminders on how to interact with this chart

  • By clicking on Add country you can show and compare the data for any country in the world you are interested in.
  • If you click on the title of the chart, the chart will open in a new tab. You can then copy-paste the URL and share it.
  • You can switch the chart to a linear axis, by clicking on ‘LOG’.
  • If you move both ends of the time-slider to a single point you will see a bar chart for this point in time.
  • You can switch to the ‘MAP’ tab.

Total confirmed cases: how rapidly have they increased compared to other countries?

The trajectory for every country begins on the day when that country had 100 confirmed cases. This allows you to make comparisons of how quickly the number of confirmed cases has grown in different countries.

Keep in mind that in countries that do very little testing the total number of cases can be much higher than the number of confirmed cases shown here.

How you can interact with this chart

Clicking on any country in the chart highlights that country. If you click on several countries you can create a view in which you can compare several countries.

Any country you might not see immediately you can find via the ‘Select Countries’ in the bottom left. Just type the name in the search box there.

What is the daily number of confirmed cases?

The previous charts looked at the increase of total confirmed cases – this chart shows the number of confirmed cases per day.

Again you have the option to switch to the rolling three-day average via the link below the chart.

How you can interact with this chart

  • Add countries: add and compare any selection of countries using the Add country button.
  • Map view: switch to a global map of confirmed cases using the ‘MAP’ tab at the bottom of the chart.

Confirmed cases: How did the total and daily number change over time?

The previous charts allowed you to compare countries.

This is a chart that is helpful to understand the spread of the disease in a single country.

In yellow you see the number of daily new confirmed cases and in red the total sum of confirmed cases.

How you can interact with this chart

On these charts you see the button Change Country in the bottom left corner – with this option you can switch the chart to any other country in the world.

Daily confirmed cases: are we bending the curve?

To bring the pandemic to an end, every country has to bring the curve of daily cases down to zero.

This chart allows you to track whether countries are achieving this or not.

This chart shows the same data as before, but now adjusted for the size of the population – it shows daily confirmed cases per million people.

How you can interact with this chart

The default log view is helpful to compare the growth rates between countries: on a logarithmic scale the steepness of the line corresponds to the growth rate.

But in this chart, as in many of our charts, you can switch to a linear axis. Just click on ‘LOG’.

Here is an explanation for how to read logarithmic axes.

Daily confirmed cases: when did countries bend the curve?

This chart shows the number of daily confirmed cases plotted against the total number of confirmed cases.

Plotting the data in this way allows us to see when different countries bent the curve.

How you can interact with this chart

Clicking on any country in the chart highlights that country. If you click on several countries you can create a view in which you can compare several countries.

Any country you might not see immediately you can find via the ‘Select Countries’ in the bottom left. Just type the name in the search box there.

Weekly cases: where are confirmed cases increasing or falling?

Why is it useful to look at weekly changes in confirmed cases?

For all global data sources on the pandemic, daily data does not necessarily refer to the number of new confirmed cases on that day – but to the cases reported on that day.

Since reporting can vary very significantly from day to day – irrespectively of any actual variation of cases – it is helpful to look at changes from week to week. This provides a slightly clearer picture of where the pandemic is accelerating, slowing, or in fact reducing.

The two maps shown here provide figures on weekly confirmed cases: one shows the number of confirmed cases in the previous seven days (the weekly total); the other shows the weekly growth rate.

Three tips on how to interact with these maps

  • By clicking on any country on the map you see the change over time in this country.
  • By moving the time slider (below the map) you can see how the global situation has changed over time.
  • You can focus on a particular world region using the dropdown menu to the top-right of the map.

Global comparison: where are confirmed cases increasing most rapidly?

Simply looking at the total or daily number of confirmed cases does not allow us to understand or compare the speed at which this figure is rising.

The table here shows how long it has taken for the number of confirmed cases to double in each country for which we have data. The table also shows how the total number of confirmed cases, and the number of daily new confirmed cases, and how those numbers have changed over the last 14 days.

How you can interact with this table

You can sort the table by any of the columns by clicking on the column header.

World maps: Confirmed cases relative to the size of the population

For the same reason as before – differences in the population size between different countries are often large – it is insightful to compare the number of confirmed cases per million people.

Three tips on how to interact with these maps

  • By clicking on any country on the map you see the change over time in this country.
  • By moving the time slider (below the map) you can see how the global situation has changed over time.
  • You can focus on a particular world region using the dropdown menu to the top-right of the map.

Deaths and cases: our data source

Our World in Data relies on data from the European CDC

In this document and the many embedded and linked charts we report and visualize the data from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).1 We make the data used in our charts and tables downloadable as a complete and structured .csv file here.

The European CDC publishes daily statistics on the COVID-19 pandemic. Not just for Europe, but for the entire world. We rely on the ECDC as they collect and harmonize data from around the world which allows us to compare what is happening in different countries. The European CDC data provides a global perspective on the evolving pandemic.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ECDC provides three statistical resources on the COVID-19 pandemic:

The ECDC makes all their data available in a daily updated clean downloadable file. This gets updated daily reflecting data collected up to 6:00 and 10:00 CET.

The European CDC collects and aggregates data from countries around the world. The most up-to-date data for any particular country is therefore typically available earlier via the national health agencies than via the ECDC. This lag between nationally available data and the ECDC data is not very long as the ECDC publishes new data daily. But it can be several hours.

Cases of COVID-19: background

How is a COVID-19 case defined?

In epidemiology, individuals which meet the case definition of a disease are often categorized on three different levels.

These definitions are often specific to the particular disease, but generally have some clear and overlapping criteria.

Cases of COVID-19 – as with other diseases – are broadly defined under a three-tier system: suspected, probable and confirmed cases.

  1. Suspected case
    A suspected case is someone who shows clinical signs and symptoms of having COVID-19, but has not been laboratory-tested.
  2. Probable case
    A suspected case with an epidemiological link to a confirmed case. This means someone who is showing symptoms of COVID-19 and has either been in close contact with a positive case, or, in a particularly COVID-affected area.2
  3. Confirmed case
    A confirmed case is “a person with laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 infection” as the World Health Organization (WHO) explains.3

Typically, for a case to be confirmed, a person must have a positive result from laboratory tests. This is true, regardless of whether they have shown symptoms of COVID-19 or not.

This means that the number of confirmed cases is lower than the number of probable cases, which is in turn lower than the number of suspected cases. The gap between these figures is partially explained by limited testing for the disease.

How are cases reported?

We have three levels of case definition: suspected, probable and confirmed cases. What is measured and reported by governments and international organizations?

International organizations – namely the WHO and European CDC – report case figures submitted by national governments. Wherever possible they aim to report confirmed cases, for two key reasons:

1. They have a higher degree of certainty because they have laboratory confirmation;

2. They held to provide standardised comparisons between countries.

However, international bodies can only provide figures as submitted by national governments and reporting institutions. Countries can define slightly different criteria for how cases are defined and reported.4 Some countries have, over the course of the outbreak, changed their reporting methodologies to also include probable cases.

One example of this is the United States. Until 14th April the US CDC provided daily reports on the number of confirmed cases. However, as of 14th April, it now provides a single figure of cases: the sum of confirmed and probable.

Suspected case figures are usually not reported. The European CDC notes that suspected cases should not be reported at the European level (although countries may record this information for national records) but are used to understand who should be tested for the disease.

Reported new cases on a particular day do not necessarily represent new cases on that day

The number of confirmed cases reported by any institution – including the WHO, the ECDC, Johns Hopkins and others – on a given day does not represent the actual number of new cases on that date. This is because of the long reporting chain that exists between a new case and its inclusion in national or international statistics.

The steps in this chain are different across countries, but for many countries the reporting chain includes most of the following steps:3

  1. Doctor or laboratory diagnoses a COVID-19 case based on testing or combination of symptoms and epidemiological probability (such as a close family member testing positive).
  2. Doctor or laboratory submits a report to the health department of the city or local district.
  3. Health department receives the report and records each individual case in the reporting system, including patient information.
  4. The ministry or another governmental organization brings this data together and publishes the latest figures.
  5. International data bodies such as the WHO or the ECDC can then collate statistics from hundreds of such national accounts.

This reporting chain can take several days. This is why the figures reported on any given date do not necessarily reflect the number of new cases on that specific date.

The number of total cases is higher than the number of confirmed cases

To understand the scale of the COVID-19 outbreak, and respond appropriately, we would want to know how many people are infected by COVID-19. We would want to know the total number of cases.

However, the total number of COVID-19 cases is not known. When media outlets claim to report the ‘number of cases’ they are not being precise and omit to say that it is the number of confirmed cases they speak about.

The total number of cases is not known, not by us at Our World in Data, nor by any other research, governmental or reporting institution.

The number of confirmed cases is lower than the number of total cases because not everyone is tested. Not all cases have a “laboratory confirmation”, testing is what makes the difference between the number of confirmed and total cases.

All countries have been struggling to test a large number of cases, which meant that not every person that should have been tested, has in fact been tested.

Since an understanding of testing for COVID-19 is crucial for an interpretation of the reported numbers of confirmed cases we have looked into the testing for COVID-19 in more detail.

You find our work on testing further below in this document (click here to scroll there).

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge and thank a number of people in the development of this work: Carl Bergstrom, Bernadeta Dadonaite, Natalie Dean, Jason Hendry, Adam Kucharski, Moritz Kraemer and Eric Topol for their very helpful and detailed comments and suggestions on earlier versions of this work. Tom Chivers we would like to thank for his editorial review and feedback.

And we would like to thank the many hundreds of readers who give us feedback on this work every day. Your feedback is what allows us to continuously clarify and improve it. We very much appreciate you taking the time to write. We cannot respond to every message we receive, but we do read all feedback and aim to take the many helpful ideas into account. Thank you all.