Per capita consumption-based CO₂ emissions
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Frequently Asked Questions
Emissions from domestic aviation and shipping are included in each country’s total. Emissions from international aviation and shipping are not included in any country or region’s total. This is because there is no international agreement on how these emissions should be allocated: should they, for example, be allocated to the country of origin or destination? In our related article we look at a separate dataset on emissions from aviation.
They are, however, included in the global total. You also find it here as a separate category.
Why are consumption-based emissions only available from 1990? Why are they not available for all countries?
To calculate consumption-based emissions we need detailed trade data between countries and the emissions intensity (the amount of CO2 emitted per dollar spent) across many industries and sectors in each country. Prior to 1990, there is insufficient high-quality, high-resolution data to produce these calculations.
For this same reason – insufficient high-resolution trade data – it is not currently possible to calculate consumption-based emissions for all countries. It is mostly high-income and major economies that are included.
Consumption-based emissions also always lag production-based emissions by one year. For example, when production-based emissions for 2020 were released, the latest year for consumption-based emissions was 2019. This is because the required resolution of trade data was not yet available for 2020.
Sources and processing
This data is based on the following sources
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At the link below you can find a detailed description of the structure of our data pipeline, including links to all the code used to prepare data across Our World in Data.
Notes on our processing step for this indicator
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