Data

Deaths in state-based conflicts by region

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What you should know about this indicator

A state-based conflict is a conflict between two armed groups, at least one of which is a state, that causes at least 25 deaths during a year. This includes combatant and civilian deaths due to fighting.

Deaths in state-based conflicts by region
The best estimate of the number of deaths of combatants and civilians due to fighting in interstate, intrastate, and extrasystemic conflicts that were ongoing that year.
Source
Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Peace Research Institute Oslo (2017) – processed by Our World in Data
Last updated
October 24, 2023
Next expected update
October 2024
Date range
1946–2022
Unit
deaths

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

This dataset is UCDP's most disaggregated dataset, covering individual events of organized violence (phenomena of lethal violence occurring at a given time and place). These events are sufficiently fine-grained to be geo-coded down to the level of individual villages, with temporal durations disaggregated to single, individual days.

You can find more notes at https://web.archive.org/web/20230618115833/https://ucdp.uu.se/downloads/ged/ged231.pdf

Retrieved on
September 21, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Davies, Shawn, Therese Pettersson & Magnus Öberg (2023). Organized violence 1989-2022 and the return of conflicts between states?. Journal of Peace Research 60(4).
Sundberg, Ralph, and Erik Melander, 2013, “Introducing the UCDP Georeferenced Event Dataset”, Journal of Peace Research, vol.50, no.4, 523-532

This project has generated a dataset on battle deaths (number of soldiers and civilians killed in combat) in state-based armed conflicts for the period 1946-2008.

The dataset is compatible with the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset for the period 1946–2008.

A longer time series (1900-1997) compatible with the Correlates of War database was included in the first version (v1) of the Battle Deaths Dataset, available from the downloads section.

For academic exchanges on the PRIO data, see the following articles and rebuttals:

There are no plans to update the PRIO battle deaths dataset beyond 2008. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) maintains a similar dataset from 1989, which is updated annually. For this dataset in different formats, as well as a codebook, go to the UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset.

While the definitions are very similar, the coding practices may differ somewhat, and we generally recommend users of the two datasets to point out that these are two different, although closely related, datasets.

Retrieved on
September 21, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, 2005. "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths." European Journal of Population: 21(2–3): 145–166. The data are available at http://www.prio.no/CSCW/Datasets/Armed-Conflict/Battle-Deaths/

How we process data at Our World in Data

All data and visualizations on Our World in Data rely on data sourced from one or several original data providers. Preparing this original data involves several processing steps. Depending on the data, this can include standardizing country names and world region definitions, converting units, calculating derived indicators such as per capita measures, as well as adding or adapting metadata such as the name or the description given to an indicator.

At the link below you can find a detailed description of the structure of our data pipeline, including links to all the code used to prepare data across Our World in Data.

Read about our data pipeline
Notes on our processing step for this indicator

Data prior to 1989 is sourced from PRIO. Data since 1989 is sourced from UCDP.

For conflict years without a best deaths estimate in the PRIO data, we conservatively coded the low estimate.

Reuse this work

  • All data produced by third-party providers and made available by Our World in Data are subject to the license terms from the original providers. Our work would not be possible without the data providers we rely on, so we ask you to always cite them appropriately (see below). This is crucial to allow data providers to continue doing their work, enhancing, maintaining and updating valuable data.
  • All data, visualizations, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited.

Citations

How to cite this page

To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Deaths in state-based conflicts by region”, part of the following publication: Bastian Herre, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Max Roser, Joe Hasell and Bobbie Macdonald (2024) - “War and Peace”. Data adapted from Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Peace Research Institute Oslo. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-in-state-based-conflicts-by-region [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Peace Research Institute Oslo (2017) – processed by Our World in Data

Full citation

Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Peace Research Institute Oslo (2017) – processed by Our World in Data. “Deaths in state-based conflicts by region” [dataset]. Uppsala Conflict Data Program, “Georeferenced Event Dataset v23.1”; Peace Research Institute Oslo, “Battle deaths v3.1” [original data]. Retrieved July 25, 2024 from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-in-state-based-conflicts-by-region