How has world population growth changed over time?

The world population has increased rapidly in recent centuries. But this is slowing.

The world population has changed dramatically over the last few centuries. Let’s examine long-run population data to understand this change and how quickly the world’s population is growing today.

The chart shows the increasing number of people living on our planet over the last 12,000 years. This is a mind-boggling change: the world population today is around 2,000 times the size of what it was 12,000 ago when it was around 4 million — less than half of the current population of London.

What is striking about this chart is, of course, that almost all of this growth happened just very recently. Historical demographers estimate that around 1800, the world population was only around 1 billion people. This implies that, on average, the population grew very slowly over this long time from 10,000 BCE to 1700 (by 0.04% annually). After 1800, this changed fundamentally: the world population was around 1 billion in 1800 and is now around 8 billion — 8 times larger.

Around 108 billion people have ever lived on our planet. This means that today’s population size makes up 6.5% of the total number of people ever born.1

For a long period from the appearance of modern Homo sapiens up to the starting point of this chart in 10,000 BCE, it is estimated that the total world population was often well under one million.2 In this period, our species was often seriously threatened by extinction.3

You can explore the interactive visualization of this change.

A line chart that shows the world population since 10,000BC. The line is mostly flat until the last few centuries when the population increased rapidly.

How has the world population growth rate changed?

We looked at the absolute change in the global population over time. But what about the rate of population growth?

The global population growth rate peaked long ago. The chart shows that global population growth peaked in 1962 and 1963 with an annual growth rate of 2.2%; however, since then, world population growth has halved.4

For the last half-century, the population growth rate has been declining. The UN projects that this decline will continue in the coming decades.

A common question we’re asked is: is the global population growing exponentially? The answer is no.

For population growth to be exponential, the growth rate would have to be the same over time (e.g., 2% growth yearly). In absolute terms, this would result in an exponential increase in the number of people. That’s because we’d be multiplying an ever-larger number of people by the same 2%. 2% of this year’s population would be larger than 2% last year, and so on; this means the population would grow exponentially.

However, as this chart shows, the growth rate has been falling since the 1960s. This means the world population is not growing exponentially.


Other ways to visualize population growth

How long did it take for the world population to double?

There are a few other ways to contextualize this period of population growth.

In this chart, we show the time it took the world population to double. On the vertical axis, we have the years it took to double; on the horizontal axis, we have the year that a population level was reached. Hover over each point to see the population change (for example, from 0.5 to 1 billion). Note that this uses data from the 2019 revision of the UN’s World Population Prospects: we are working on an updated version with the latest data.

In the past, the population grew slowly: it took nearly seven centuries for the population to double from 0.25 billion (in the early 9th century) to 0.5 billion in the middle of the 16th century. As the growth rate slowly climbed, the population doubling time fell but remained in the order of centuries into the first half of the 20th century. Things sped up considerably in the middle of the 20th century.

The fastest doubling of the world population happened between 1950 and 1987: from 2.5 to 5 billion people in just 37 years — the population doubled within a little more than one generation. This period was marked by a peak population growth of 2.1% in 1962.

Since then, population growth has been slowing, and the doubling time alongside it. In this visualization, we have used the UN projections to show how the doubling time is projected to change until the end of this century. By the 2080s, it will once again have taken approximately 100 years for the population to double to a predicted 10.4 billion.


How long did it take for the world population to increase by one billion?

This visualization provides an additional perspective on population growth: the number of years it took to add one billion to the global population. This is based on the 2022 revision of world population estimates from the UN Population Division.

This visualization shows again how the population growth rate has changed dramatically over time.

It wasn’t until 1805 that the world reached its first billion; it then took another 120 years to reach two billion. By the third billion, this period had reduced to 35 years, reduced further to 14 years to reach four. The fastest growth period occurred from 1974 to 2011, taking only 12 to 13 years to increase by one billion for the 5th, 6th, and 7th.

The world has now surpassed this peak rate of growth, and the period between each billion is expected to continue rising. It’s estimated to take approximately 14 years to reach nine billion in 2037 and 21 years to reach 10 billion in 2058.

The latest UN medium projection expects that the world will not reach 11 billion people this century: it projects the population to peak at 10.4 billion in 2086 before falling again.



  1. As per 2011 estimates from Carl Haub (2011), “How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?” Population Reference Bureau.

  2. See, for example, Kremer (1993) – Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990. In the Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 108, No. 3, 681-716.

  3. John Hawks, Keith Hunley, Sang-Hee Lee, Milford Wolpoff; Population Bottlenecks and Pleistocene Human Evolution, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, Pages 2–22.

  4. This data comes from the UN World Population Division.

Cite this work

Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this article, please also cite the underlying data sources. This article can be cited as:

Max Roser and Hannah Ritchie (2023) - “How has world population growth changed over time?” Published online at Retrieved from: '' [Online Resource]

BibTeX citation

    author = {Max Roser and Hannah Ritchie},
    title = {How has world population growth changed over time?},
    journal = {Our World in Data},
    year = {2023},
    note = {}
Our World in Data logo

Reuse this work freely

All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited.

The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution.

All of our charts can be embedded in any site.