Global yearly surface temperature anomalies

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About this data

Global yearly surface temperature anomalies
The deviation of a specific year's average surface temperature from the 1991-2020 mean, in degrees Celsius.
Copernicus Climate Change Service (2019) – with major processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
December 20, 2023
Date range

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

ERA5 is the latest climate reanalysis produced by ECMWF, providing hourly data on many atmospheric, land-surface and sea-state parameters together with estimates of uncertainty.

ERA5 data are available in the Climate Data Store on regular latitude-longitude grids at 0.25° x 0.25° resolution, with atmospheric parameters on 37 pressure levels.

ERA5 is available from 1940 and continues to be extended forward in time, with daily updates being made available 5 days behind real time

Initial release data, i.e., data no more than three months behind real time, are called ERA5T.

Retrieved on
July 8, 2024
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Biavati, G., Horányi, A., Muñoz Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R., Rozum, I., Schepers, D., Simmons, A., Soci, C., Dee, D., Thépaut, J-N. (2023): ERA5 monthly averaged data on single levels from 1940 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS), DOI: 10.24381/cds.f17050d7 (Accessed on 08-July-2024)

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How to cite this page

To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Global yearly surface temperature anomalies”, part of the following publication: Hannah Ritchie, Pablo Rosado and Veronika Samborska (2024) - “Climate Change”. Data adapted from Copernicus Climate Change Service. Retrieved from [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

Copernicus Climate Change Service (2019) – with major processing by Our World in Data

Full citation

Copernicus Climate Change Service (2019) – with major processing by Our World in Data. “Global yearly surface temperature anomalies” [dataset]. Copernicus Climate Change Service, “ERA5 monthly averaged data on single levels from 1940 to present 2” [original data]. Retrieved July 14, 2024 from