Hardware and energy cost to train notable AI systems

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What you should know about this indicator

The cost of developing the AI system was adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the United States. The CPI was used to account for the changes in the price level of consumer goods and services over time. The inflation-adjusted cost is presented in 2023 US dollars.

Hardware and energy cost to train notable AI systems
The cost of developing the AI system expressed in 2023 US dollars, adjusted for inflation.
Epoch (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
June 6, 2024
Date range
constant 2023 US$

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

This dataset provides a comprehensive analysis of the costs associated with training frontier AI models, with a focus on estimating the magnitude and growth of these expenses. It includes detailed cost components for various AI models, considering hardware, energy, cloud rental, and staff expenses. The dataset is based on a detailed cost model developed to fill the gap in public data on AI training costs. The data covers the period from 2016 to the projected costs for 2027.

Retrieved on
June 6, 2024
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Ben Cottier, Robi Rahman, Loredana Fattorini, Nestor Maslej, and David Owen. ‘The rising costs of training frontier AI models’. ArXiv [cs.CY], 2024. arXiv.

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How to cite this page

To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Hardware and energy cost to train notable AI systems”, part of the following publication: Charlie Giattino, Edouard Mathieu, Veronika Samborska and Max Roser (2023) - “Artificial Intelligence”. Data adapted from Epoch. Retrieved from [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

Epoch (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data

Full citation

Epoch (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data. “Hardware and energy cost to train notable AI systems” [dataset]. Epoch, “The rising costs of training frontier AI models 2024-05-31” [original data]. Retrieved July 15, 2024 from