Gross national income (GNI) per capita

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What you should know about this indicator

UNDP relies on IMF (2023), UNDESA (2023), United Nations Statistics Division (2023), World Bank (2023).

The World Bank's 2023 World Development Indicators database contains estimates of GNI per capita in constant 2017 purchasing power parity (PPP) terms for many countries. For countries missing this indicator (entirely or partly), the Human Development Report Office calculates it by converting GNI per capita in local currency from current to constant terms using two steps. First, the value of GNI per capita in current terms is converted into PPP terms for the base year (2017). Second, a time series of GNI per capita in 2017 PPP constant terms is constructed by applying the real growth rates to the GNI per capita in PPP terms for the base year. The real growth rate is implied by the ratio of the nominal growth of GNI per capita in current local currency terms to the GDP deflator.

For several countries without a value of GNI per capita in constant 2017 PPP terms for 20 22 reported in the World Development Indicators database, real growth rates of GDP per capita available in the World Development Indicators database or in the International Monetary Fund's Economic Outlook database are applied to the most recent GNI values in constant PPP terms.

Official PPP conversion rates are produced by the International Comparison Program, whose surveys periodically collect thousands of prices of matched goods and services in many countries. The last round of this exercise refers to 2017 and covered 176 economies.

Gross national income (GNI) per capita
Measures the total income earned by residents of a country, including income earned abroad. This data is adjusted for inflation and differences in the cost of living between countries.
UNDP, Human Development Report (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
April 9, 2024
Next expected update
April 2025
Date range
international-$ in 2017 prices

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

The 2023/24 Human Development Report assesses the dangerous gridlock resulting from uneven development progress, intensifying inequality, and escalating political polarization, that we must urgently tackle. The report emphasizes how global interdependence is being reconfigured and proposes a path forward where multilateralism plays a pivotal role.

Additional resources related to the 2023/2024 Human Development Report can be found online at Resources on the website include digital versions and translations of the Report and the overview in multiple languages, an interactive web version of the Report, a set of background papers and think pieces commissioned for the Report, interactive data visualizations and databases of human development indicators, full explanations of the sources and methodologies used in the Report’s composite indices, country insights and other background materials, and previous global, regional and national Human Development Reports. Corrections and addenda are also available online.

Technical notes (region definitions, reports, etc.) can be found at

Retrieved on
April 9, 2024
Retrieved from
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2024. Human Development Report 2023-24: Breaking the gridlock: Reimagining cooperation in a polarized world. New York.

How we process data at Our World in Data

All data and visualizations on Our World in Data rely on data sourced from one or several original data providers. Preparing this original data involves several processing steps. Depending on the data, this can include standardizing country names and world region definitions, converting units, calculating derived indicators such as per capita measures, as well as adding or adapting metadata such as the name or the description given to an indicator.

At the link below you can find a detailed description of the structure of our data pipeline, including links to all the code used to prepare data across Our World in Data.

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To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Gross national income (GNI) per capita”, part of the following publication: Bastian Herre and Pablo Arriagada (2023) - “The Human Development Index and related indices: what they are and what we can learn from them”. Data adapted from UNDP, Human Development Report. Retrieved from [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

UNDP, Human Development Report (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data

Full citation

UNDP, Human Development Report (2024) – with minor processing by Our World in Data. “Gross national income (GNI) per capita” [dataset]. UNDP, Human Development Report, “Human Development Report 2023-2024” [original data]. Retrieved June 19, 2024 from