Data

Primary energy consumption per GDP

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What you should know about this indicator

  • This GDP indicator provides information on economic growth and income levels in the very long run. Some country estimates are available as far back as 1 CE and regional estimates as far back as 1820 CE.
  • This data is adjusted for inflation and for differences in the cost of living between countries.
  • This data is expressed in at 2011 prices, using a combination of 2011 and 1990 PPPs for historical data.
  • Time series for former countries and territories are calculated forward in time by estimating values based on their last official borders.
  • For more regularly updated estimates of GDP, see the World Bank's indicator.
Primary energy consumption per GDP
Measured in kilowatt-hours per international-$.
Source
U.S. Energy Information Administration (2023); Energy Institute - Statistical Review of World Energy (2023); Bolt and van Zanden - Maddison Project Database 2023 – with major processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
May 8, 2024
Next expected update
May 2025
Date range
1965–2022
Unit
kilowatt-hours per $

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

Retrieved on
December 12, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - International Energy Data (2023).

The Energy Institute Statistical Review of World Energy analyses data on world energy markets from the prior year.

Retrieved on
December 12, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Energy Institute - Statistical Review of World Energy (2023).

The Maddison Project Database provides information on comparative economic growth and income levels over the very long run. The 2023 version of this database covers 169 countries and the period up to 2022. The new estimates are presented and discussed in Bolt and Van Zanden (2024), "Maddison style estimates of the evolution of the world economy: A new 2023 update", Journal of Economic Surveys, 1–41.

Retrieved on
April 26, 2024
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Bolt, Jutta and Jan Luiten van Zanden (2024), "Maddison style estimates of the evolution of the world economy: A new 2023 update", Journal of Economic Surveys, 1–41. DOI: 10.1111/joes.12618”.
The Maddison Project Database is based on the work of many researchers that have produced estimates of economic growth for individual countries. The full list of sources for this historical data is given for each country below.
Argentina
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1870 - 1900 	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P
Belgium
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1500- 1846 	Buyst, E. (2011), “Towards Estimates of Long Term Growth in the Southern Low Countries, ca.1500-1846”, Results presented at the Conference on Quantifying Long Run Economic Development, Venice, 22-24 March, 2011
Bulgaria
1892-1945 	Ivanov, M. (2006). “Bulgarian National Income between 1892 and 1924,” Bulgarian National Discussion Papers DP/54/2006
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
1846-1950	Herranz-Loncán, A. and Peres-Cajías (2016). “Bolivian GDP per capita since the mid-nineteenth century” Cliometrica 10: 99-128
Brazil
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1850–1899	Barro, R.J. and J.F. Ursua, (2008). “Macroeconomic Crises since 1870” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 255-350
Switzerland
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1850-2011	Stohr, Christian (2016), Trading Gains: new estimates of Swiss GDP, 1851-2008. Economic History Working Papers, 245/2016. London School of Economics and Political Science, Economic History Department, London, UK
Chile
1810–2004	Díaz, J.B. Lüders, R. and Wagner, G. (2007) Economia Chilena 1810 - 2000, Producto total y sectorial una nueva mirada, Pontificia universidad Catolica de Chile, Insituto de Economia, Documeno de Trabajo no. 315
China
1000-1661	Broadberry, S.N., Guan, Hanhui and David Daokui Li (2018), “China, Europe and the Great Divergence: a Study in Historical National Accounting, 980-1850”, Journal of Economic History, 78, 4, 955-1000
1661–1933	Broadberry, S.N., Guan, Hanhui and David Daokui Li (2018), “China, Europe and the Great Divergence: a Study in Historical National Accounting, 980-1850”, Journal of Economic History, 78, 4, 955-1000
1661–1933	Xu, Y. Z. Shi, B. van Leeuwen, Y Ni, Z Zhang, and Y Ma, (2016) 'Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933', Australian Economic History Review 57(3), 368–393
1952–2008	Wu, Harry X. (2014), “China’s growth and productivity performance debate revisited – Accounting for China’s sources of growth with a new data set” The Conference Board Economics Program Working Paper Series EWP#14-01.
Colombia
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1870 - 1923 	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P.
Czechoslovakia
1993 - 	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
Cuba
1690–1895	Santamaria Garcia, A. (2005). Las Cuentas nacionales de Cuba, 1960 - 2005', mimeo
1902–1958	Ward, M. and Devereux, J. (2012), “The Road Not Taken: Pre-Revolutionary Cuban Living Standards in Comparative Perspective” Journal of Economic History, 72(1): 104–132
Germany
1500-1850	Pfister, U. (2022). Economic Growth in Germany, 1500–1850. The Journal of Economic History, 82(4), 1071–1107
Ecuador
1833-1938	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data). We use the growth rate between 1933 and 1938 from Prados de la Escosura (2009) and link that to the 1939 level of Maddison’s original estimates.
Egypt
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 – 1500 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011.
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Spain
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1270-1850	Álvarez-Nogal, C. and L. Prados de la Escosura (2013). "The Rise and Fall of Spain (1270-1850)," Economic History Review, 66, 1, 1-37, using their annual benchmarks
1850–2011	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2017), Spanish Economic Growth, 1850-2015 (London: Palgrave Macmillan)
Finland
1600–1860	Eloranta, J., Voutilainen, M. and Nummela, I. (2016).  “Estimating Finnish Economic Growth Before 1860” mimeo.
France
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1276–1800	Ridolfi, L., & Nuvolari, A. (2021). L’histoire immobile? A reappraisal of French economic growth using the demand-side approach, 1280–1850. European Review of Economic History, 25(3), 405–428
United Kingdom
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1252–1700 (England)	Broadberry, S.N., B. Campbell, A. Klein, M. Overton and B. van Leeuwen (2015), British Economic Growth 1270-1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1700–1870	Broadberry, S.N., B. Campbell, A. Klein, M. Overton and B. van Leeuwen (2015), British Economic Growth 1270-1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ghana
1885-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Greece
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1833-1913	Kostelenos G., S. Petmezas, D. Vasiliou,  E. Kounaris and M. Sfakianakis, (2007), "Gross Domestic Product 1830-1939", Sources of Economic History of Modern Greece: Quantitative data and statistical series 1830-1939, Historical Archives of the National Bank of Greece, Athens.
Croatia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Indonesia
1815 – 1880 (Java)	Van Zanden (2012). “Economic Growth in Java 1815-1939: The Reconstruction of the Historical National Accounts of a Colonial Economy”, Maddison-Project Working Paper WP-3.
1880-2008	Van der Eng, P. (2010). The Sources of Long-Term Economic Growth in Indonesia, 1880-2008”,  Explorations in Economic History, 47: 294-309
India
1600–1870	Broadberry, S.N., Custodis, J. and Gupta, B. (2015), “India and the great divergence: an Anglo-Indian comparison of GDP per capita, 1600–1871” Explorations in Economic History, 55: 58-75.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Iraq
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 – 1500 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011.
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Iceland
1870-1945	Jonsson, G. (1998). The gross domestic product of Iceland, 1870-1945. Nordiska Historiska Nasjonalregnkaper, Artikkelsamling from Workshop IV, Solstrand 13-15 NOvember 1998.
Israel
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
Italy
1451-1861	Chilosi, D., & Ciccarelli, C. (2023). Italy in the Great Divergence: What Can We Learn from Engel’s Law (SSRN Scholarly Paper 4514091).
1861-1871 (North Italy)	Malanima, P. (2010), “The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913” European Review of Economic History 15 (2): 169–219.
1871-1990	Baffigi, A. (2011).”Italian National Accounts, 1861-2011”, Banca d’Italia Economic History Working Papers 18.
Jamaica
1850 - 1938 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
Jordan
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Japan
724-1874	Bassino, Jean-Pascal & Broadberry, Stephen & Fukao, Kyoji & Gupta, Bishnupriya & Takashima, Masanori, (2018). "Japan and the Great Divergence, 730-1874," CEI Working Paper Series 2018-13, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University
1874-1940	Fukao, K., Bassino, J.-P., Makino, T., Paprzycki, R., Settsu, T., Takashima, M., and Tokui, J. (2015) Regional Inequality and Industrial Structure in Japan: 1874-2008, Tokyo: Maruzen Publishing.
Kenya
1904-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Republic of Korea
1911-1990	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing
Lebanon
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Liberia
1845-1950	Gardner, L. (2022). Sovereignty without Power: Liberia in the Age of Empires, 1822-1980. Cambridge University Press.
Mexico
1550–1812	Arroyo Abad, L. and J.L. van Zanden (2016), “Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times” Journal of Economic History 76(4): 1182–1215.
1812–1870	Prados de la Escosura, L., (2009), ‘Lost decades? Economic performance in post-independence Latin America’, Journal of Latin America Studies, 41, pp. 279–307. (updated data)
1870-1895	Bértola, L., & Ocampo, J. A. (2012). The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford University Press, Table A.2
1895–2003	Barro, R.J. and J.F. Ursua, (2008). “Macroeconomic Crises since 1870” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 255-350
TFYR of Macedonia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Montenegro
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Malawi
1904-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Malaysia
1900-1939	Nazrin Shah, S. (2017). Charting the Economy: Early 20th Century Malaya and Contemporary Malaysian Contrasts, Oxford University Press
Nigeria
1885-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Netherlands
1348–1807 (Holland)	Van Zanden, J. L. and van Leeuwen, B. (2012), ‘Persistent but not consistent: the growth of national income in Holland 1347–1807’, Explorations in Economic History, 49 (2012), pp. 119–30.
1807-1913	Smits, J.P., E. Horlings and J.L. van Zanden (2000). The Measurement of Gross National Product and its Components 1800-1913 (Groningen Growth and Development Centre Monograph series no 5).
Norway
1820–1930	Grytten, O.H. (2015). Norwegian gross domestic product by industry 1830 - 1930, Norges Bank Working paper 19/2015. Population from Maddison (2006)
Panama
1906–1945	De Corso, G. (2013). El crecimiento economico de Venuzuela, Desde la Oligarquia Conservadora Hasta La Revolucion Bolivariana: 1830-2012. Uno Vision cuantitativa *: Venezuelan Economic Growth From The Conservative Oligarchy To The Bolivarian Revolution (1830-2012), Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 31(3), 321-357. doi:10.1017/S0212610913000190
Peru
1600–1812	Arroyo Abad, L. and J.L. van Zanden (2016), “Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times” Journal of Economic History 76(4): 1182–1215.
1812–1870	Seminario, B. (2015). El Desarrallo de la Economía Peruana en la Era Moderna, Universidad de Pacifico, Lima
1870-1901	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P, Table A2
Poland
1409–1913	Malinowski, M. and Van Zanden (2017), “National income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland in a global perspective” Cliometrica, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 375–40
D.P.R. of Korea
1911-1940	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing.
1990-2011	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing.
Portugal
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1530–1850	Palma, N., & Reis, J. (2019). From Convergence to Divergence: Portuguese Economic Growth, 1527–1850. The Journal of Economic History, 79(2), 477-506. doi:10.1017/S0022050719000056
Romania
1862–1995	Axenciuc, V. (2012). Produsul intern brut al Romaniei, Vol. 1, Institutl de Economie Nationala, Bucarest
1915-1919 & 1949	Voinea, L., Cojocaru, A., Costache, B., Grigoraș, V., Lovin, H., Neagu, C., Orțan, D., & Tănase, A. (2019). One Hundred Years of Honesty: Recovering the Lost Memory of the Romanian Economy 1918-2018.
Russia
1860-1885	Kuboniwa, M. (2019). Estimating GDP and Foreign Rents of the Oil and Gas Sector in the Soviet Union and Present-Day Russia. In M. Kuboniwa, Y. Nakamura, K. Kumo, & Y. Shida (Eds.), Russian Economic Development over Three Centuries: New Data and Inferences (pp. 421–438). Springer.
Saudi Arabia
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Singapore
1900–1959	Sugimoto, I. (2011), Economic growth of Singapore in the twentieth century: historical GDP estimates and empirical investigations, Economic Growth Centre Research Monograph ser., 2, http://www.worldscibooks.com/economics/7858.html (accessed on 30 Jan. 2013).
Serbia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Former USSR
1860-1885	Kuboniwa, M. (2019). Estimating GDP and Foreign Rents of the Oil and Gas Sector in the Soviet Union and Present-Day Russia. In M. Kuboniwa, Y. Nakamura, K. Kumo, & Y. Shida (Eds.), Russian Economic Development over Three Centuries: New Data and Inferences (pp. 421–438). Springer.
1885-1913 	Gregory, P. R. (1982). Russian National Income, 1885–1913, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
1913-1928 	Markevich, A. and M. Harrison (2011). “Great War, Civil War, and Recovery: Russia's National Income, 1913 to 1928”, The Journal of Economic History, Volume 71 (3): 672 – 703, table 6.
1991 -	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
Slovenia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Sweden
1300–1560	Krantz, O. (2017) “Swedish GDP 1300-1560 A Tentative Estimate” Lund Papers in Economic History: General Issues; No. 152.
1560–1950	Schön, L., and O. Krantz (2015) “New Swedish Historical National Accounts since the 16th Century in Constant and Current Prices” Lund Papers in Economic History no. 140
Syrian Arab Republic
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Turkey
1	Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 - 1820 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011; Milanovic, B. (2006), “An estimate of average income and inequality in Byzantium around year 1000,” Review of Income and Wealth 52 (3).
1500-1820	Pamuk, S. (2009). “Estimating GDP per capita for the Ottoman Empire in a European Comparative Framework, 1500-1820”,  paper presented at the XVth World Economic History Congress, August 2009, Utrecht
Taiwan, Province of China
1820 - 1940 	Fukao, K., D. Ma and T. Yuan (2007). Real GDP in Pre-War East Asia: A 1934-36 Benchmark Purchasing Power Parity Comparison with the U.S. Review of Income and Wealth, 53 (3): 503 - 537. Trend from original Maddison estimates applied to benchmark for 1934/36
Uganda
1906-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Uruguay
1800-1870	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data)
1870–2014	Bèrtola, L. (2016). El PIB per Capita de Uruguay 1870 - 2016: una reconstruccion. PHES working paper No 48
United States
1650 - 1790 	McCusker, John J., ‘Colonial Statistics’, Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Time to the Present, in S. B. Carter, S. S. Gartner, M. R. Haineset al. New York, Cambridge University Press. V-671.
1790 - 1870 	Sutch, R. (2006). National Income and Product. Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Time to the Present, in S. B. Carter, S. S. Gartner, M. R. Haineset al. New York, Cambridge University Press III-23-25.
1800-1830	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
1830–2012	De Corso, G. (2013). El crecimiento economico de Venuzuela, Desde la Oligarquia Conservadora Hasta La Revolucion Bolivariana: 1830-2012. Uno Vision cuantitativa *: Venezuelan Economic Growth From The Conservative Oligarchy To The Bolivarian Revolution (1830-2012), Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 31(3), 321-357. doi:10.1017/S0212610913000190
Former Yugoslavia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
2008 -	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
South Africa
1700–1900 (Cape Colony)	Fourie, J. and Van Zanden, J.L. (2013). GDP in the Dutch Cape Colony: the Nationals Accounts of a Slave-Based Society, South African Journal of Economics, vol. 81 (4): 467 - 490
Zambia
1906-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Zimbabwe
1914-1950	Broadberry, S., & Gardner, L. (2022). Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1885–2008: Evidence from eight countries. Explorations in Economic History, 83, 101424.
Population sources
1990 onward Total Economy Database the Conference Board for all countries included in TED. Otherwise UN national accounts statistics.

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“Data Page: Primary energy consumption per GDP”, part of the following publication: Hannah Ritchie, Pablo Rosado and Max Roser (2023) - “Energy”. Data adapted from U.S. Energy Information Administration, Energy Institute, Bolt and van Zanden. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/energy-intensity [online resource]
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U.S. Energy Information Administration (2023); Energy Institute - Statistical Review of World Energy (2023); Bolt and van Zanden - Maddison Project Database 2023 – with major processing by Our World in Data

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (2023); Energy Institute - Statistical Review of World Energy (2023); Bolt and van Zanden - Maddison Project Database 2023 – with major processing by Our World in Data. “Primary energy consumption per GDP” [dataset]. U.S. Energy Information Administration, “International Energy Data”; Energy Institute, “Statistical Review of World Energy”; Bolt and van Zanden, “Maddison Project Database 2023” [original data]. Retrieved June 18, 2024 from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/energy-intensity