Data

Deaths in armed conflicts based on where they occurred

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What you should know about this indicator

An armed conflict is a disagreement between organized groups, or between one organized group and civilians, that causes at least 25 deaths during a year. This includes combatant and civilian deaths due to fighting.

Deaths in armed conflicts based on where they occurred
The best estimate of the number of deaths of combatants and civilians due to fighting in interstate, intrastate, extrasystemic, non-state conflicts, and one-sided violence that were ongoing that year.
Source
Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Natural Earth (2022) – processed by Our World in Data
Last updated
September 21, 2023
Date range
1989–2022
Unit
deaths

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

This dataset is UCDP's most disaggregated dataset, covering individual events of organized violence (phenomena of lethal violence occurring at a given time and place). These events are sufficiently fine-grained to be geo-coded down to the level of individual villages, with temporal durations disaggregated to single, individual days.

You can find more notes at https://web.archive.org/web/20230618115833/https://ucdp.uu.se/downloads/ged/ged231.pdf

Retrieved on
September 21, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Davies, Shawn, Therese Pettersson & Magnus Öberg (2023). Organized violence 1989-2022 and the return of conflicts between states?. Journal of Peace Research 60(4).
Sundberg, Ralph, and Erik Melander, 2013, “Introducing the UCDP Georeferenced Event Dataset”, Journal of Peace Research, vol.50, no.4, 523-532

There are 258 countries in the world. Greenland as separate from Denmark. Most users will want this file instead of sovereign states, though some users will want map units instead when distinguishing overseas regions of France.

Natural Earth shows de facto boundaries by default according to who controls the territory, versus de jure. Optional point-of-view (POV) variants are available for several dozen countries in the next section.

Countries distinguish between metropolitan (homeland) and independent and semi-independent portions of sovereign states. If you want to see the dependent overseas regions broken out (like in ISO codes, see France for example), use map units instead.

Each country is coded with a world region that roughly follows the United Nations setup.

Countries are coded with standard ISO and FIPS codes. French INSEE codes are also included.

Includes some thematic data from the United Nations, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and elsewhere.

This is the most detailed. Suitable for making zoomed-in maps of countries and regions. Show the world on a large wall poster:

1:10,000,000 1″ = 158 miles 1 cm = 100 km

All users of Natural Earth are highly encouraged to read about data sources and manipulation in the Data Creation section.

Retrieved on
November 28, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Natural Earth. Free vector and raster map data @ naturalearthdata.com

How we process data at Our World in Data

All data and visualizations on Our World in Data rely on data sourced from one or several original data providers. Preparing this original data involves several processing steps. Depending on the data, this can include standardizing country names and world region definitions, converting units, calculating derived indicators such as per capita measures, as well as adding or adapting metadata such as the name or the description given to an indicator.

At the link below you can find a detailed description of the structure of our data pipeline, including links to all the code used to prepare data across Our World in Data.

Read about our data pipeline
Notes on our processing step for this indicator

UCDP provides geographical coordinates of each conflict event. We have mapped these coordinates to countries by means of the Natural Earth dataset.

In some instances, the event's coordinates fall within the borders of a country. Other times, the event's coordinates fall outside the borders of a country. In the latter case, we have mapped the event to the country that is closest to the event's coordinates.

Conflict event with id "53238" and relid "PAK-2003-1-345-88" was assigned to "Siachen Glacier" by Natural Earth. We have mapped it to "Pakistan" following the text in the where_description field from the Natural Earth data, which refers to "Giang sector in Siachen, Pakistani Kashmir".

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Citations

How to cite this page

To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Deaths in armed conflicts based on where they occurred”, part of the following publication: Bastian Herre, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Max Roser, Joe Hasell and Bobbie Macdonald (2024) - “War and Peace”. Data adapted from Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Natural Earth. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-in-armed-conflicts-by-country [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Natural Earth (2022) – processed by Our World in Data

Full citation

Uppsala Conflict Data Program (2023); Natural Earth (2022) – processed by Our World in Data. “Deaths in armed conflicts based on where they occurred” [dataset]. Uppsala Conflict Data Program, “Georeferenced Event Dataset v23.1”; Natural Earth, “Large scale data (1:10m Cultural Vectors), Admin 0 Countries 5.1.1” [original data]. Retrieved June 15, 2024 from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-in-armed-conflicts-by-country