Data

Deaths from volcanic eruptions

NOAA/NCEI
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What you should know about this indicator

A significant eruption must meet at least one of the following criteria: caused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or more), had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or greater, generated a tsunami, or was associated with a significant earthquake.

Source
National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (2024) – with major processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
May 9, 2024
Date range
141 BCE – 2023 CE
Unit
deaths

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteria: caused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or more), Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or greater, generated a tsunami, or was associated with a significant earthquake. The database provides information on the latitude, longitude, elevation, type of volcano, last known eruption, VEI index, and socio-economic data such as the total number of casualties, injuries, houses destroyed, and houses damaged, and $ dollar damage estimates. References, political geography, and additional comments are also provided for each eruption. If the eruption was associated with a tsunami or significant earthquake, it is flagged and linked to the related database. For a complete list of current and past activity for all volcanoes on the planet active during the last 10,000 years, please see Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP).

Retrieved on
May 9, 2024
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5JW8BSH
The data can be accessed via the NCEI/WDS Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database or via the Natural Hazards API.

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Citations

How to cite this page

To cite this page overall, including any descriptions, FAQs or explanations of the data authored by Our World in Data, please use the following citation:

“Data Page: Deaths from volcanic eruptions”, part of the following publication: Hannah Ritchie and Pablo Rosado (2022) - “Natural Disasters”. Data adapted from National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-from-volcanic-eruptions [online resource]
How to cite this data

In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (2024) – with major processing by Our World in Data

Full citation

National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (2024) – with major processing by Our World in Data. “Deaths from volcanic eruptions – NOAA/NCEI” [dataset]. National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service, “Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database” [original data]. Retrieved June 20, 2024 from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/deaths-from-volcanic-eruptions