Data

Consumption-based carbon intensity

GCB
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What you should know about this indicator

  • Consumption-based emissions attribute the emissions generated in the production of goods and services according to where they were consumed, rather than where they were produced.
  • The data is calculated by adjusting 'production-based' emissions (emissions produced domestically) for trade: Consumption-based emissions equals production-based emissions, minus emissions embedded in exports, plus emissions embedded in imports.
  • If a country's consumption-based emissions are higher than its production emissions it is a net importer of carbon dioxide. If its consumption-based emissions are lower, then it is a net exporter.
  • Consumption-based emissions are not available for all countries because not all countries have sufficient, high-quality trade data. But those without complete data are a small fraction (3%) of the global total.
  • This data measures carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from fossil fuels and industry and does not include emissions from land use change, deforestation, soils, or vegetation.
  • Emissions from international aviation and shipping are not included in any country or region's emissions. They are only included in the global total emissions.
Consumption-based carbon intensity GCB
Annual consumption-based emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), measured in kilograms per dollar of GDP (2011 international-$).
Source
Global Carbon Budget (2023); Maddison Project Database 2020 (Bolt and van Zanden, 2020) – with major processing by Our World in Data
Last updated
December 12, 2023
Next expected update
December 2024
Date range
1990–2018
Unit
kilograms per international-$

Sources and processing

This data is based on the following sources

The Global Carbon Budget was founded by the Global Carbon Project (GCP) international science team to track the trends in global carbon emissions and sinks and is a key measure of progress towards the goals of the Paris Agreement. It's widely recognized as the most comprehensive report of its kind.

The GCP has been publishing estimates of global and national fossil CO2 emissions since 2001. In the first instance these were simple re-publications of data from another source, but over subsequent years refinements have been made in response to feedback and identification of inaccuracies.

Retrieved on
December 12, 2023
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Andrew, R. M., & Peters, G. P. (2023). The Global Carbon Project's fossil CO2 emissions dataset (2023v36) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10177738
The data files of the Global Carbon Budget can be found at: https://globalcarbonbudget.org/carbonbudget/
For more details, see the original paper:
Friedlingstein, P., O'Sullivan, M., Jones, M. W., Andrew, R. M., Bakker, D. C. E., Hauck, J., Landschützer, P., Le Quéré, C., Luijkx, I. T., Peters, G. P., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Schwingshackl, C., Sitch, S., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R. B., Alin, S. R., Anthoni, P., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Becker, M., Bellouin, N., Decharme, B., Bopp, L., Brasika, I. B. M., Cadule, P., Chamberlain, M. A., Chandra, N., Chau, T.-T.-T., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Cronin, M., Dou, X., Enyo, K., Evans, W., Falk, S., Feely, R. A., Feng, L., Ford, D. J., Gasser, T., Ghattas, J., Gkritzalis, T., Grassi, G., Gregor, L., Gruber, N., Gürses, Ö., Harris, I., Hefner, M., Heinke, J., Houghton, R. A., Hurtt, G. C., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Jacobson, A. R., Jain, A., Jarníková, T., Jersild, A., Jiang, F., Jin, Z., Joos, F., Kato, E., Keeling, R. F., Kennedy, D., Klein Goldewijk, K., Knauer, J., Korsbakken, J. I., Körtzinger, A., Lan, X., Lefèvre, N., Li, H., Liu, J., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Marland, G., Mayot, N., McGuire, P. C., McKinley, G. A., Meyer, G., Morgan, E. J., Munro, D. R., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., O'Brien, K. M., Olsen, A., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Paulsen, M., Pierrot, D., Pocock, K., Poulter, B., Powis, C. M., Rehder, G., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Rosan, T. M., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Smallman, T. L., Smith, S. M., Sospedra-Alfonso, R., Sun, Q., Sutton, A. J., Sweeney, C., Takao, S., Tans, P. P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tsujino, H., Tubiello, F., van der Werf, G. R., van Ooijen, E., Wanninkhof, R., Watanabe, M., Wimart-Rousseau, C., Yang, D., Yang, X., Yuan, W., Yue, X., Zaehle, S., Zeng, J., and Zheng, B.: Global Carbon Budget 2023, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 5301-5369, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-15-5301-2023, 2023.
Retrieved on
April 12, 2022
Citation
This is the citation of the original data obtained from the source, prior to any processing or adaptation by Our World in Data. To cite data downloaded from this page, please use the suggested citation given in Reuse This Work below.
Bolt, Jutta and Jan Luiten van Zanden (2020), “Maddison style estimates of the evolution of the world economy. A new 2020 update“.
The Maddison Project Database is based on the work of many researchers that have produced estimates of economic growth for individual countries. The full list of sources for this historical data is given for each country below.
Argentina
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1870 - 1900 	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P
Belgium
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1500- 1846 	Buyst, E. (2011), “Towards Estimates of Long Term Growth in the Southern Low Countries, ca.1500-1846”, Results presented at the Conference on Quantifying Long Run Economic Development, Venice, 22-24 March, 2011
Bulgaria
1892-1945 	Ivanov, M. (2006). “Bulgarian National Income between 1892 and 1924,” Bulgarian National Discussion Papers DP/54/2006
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
1846-1950	Herranz-Loncán, A. and Peres-Cajías (2016). “Bolivian GDP per capita since the mid-nineteenth century” Cliometrica 10: 99-128
Brazil
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1850–1899	Barro, R.J. and J.F. Ursua, (2008). “Macroeconomic Crises since 1870” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 255-350
Switzerland
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1850-2011	Stohr, Christian (2016), Trading Gains: new estimates of Swiss GDP, 1851-2008. Economic History Working Papers, 245/2016. London School of Economics and Political Science, Economic History Department, London, UK
Chile
1810–2004	Díaz, J.B. Lüders, R. and Wagner, G. (2007) Economia Chilena 1810 - 2000, Producto total y sectorial una nueva mirada, Pontificia universidad Catolica de Chile, Insituto de Economia, Documeno de Trabajo no. 315
China
1000-1661	Broadberry, S.N., Guan, Hanhui and David Daokui Li (2018), “China, Europe and the Great Divergence: a Study in Historical National Accounting, 980-1850”, Journal of Economic History, 78, 4, 955-1000
1661–1933	Broadberry, S.N., Guan, Hanhui and David Daokui Li (2018), “China, Europe and the Great Divergence: a Study in Historical National Accounting, 980-1850”, Journal of Economic History, 78, 4, 955-1000
1661–1933	Xu, Y. Z. Shi, B. van Leeuwen, Y Ni, Z Zhang, and Y Ma, (2016) 'Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933', Australian Economic History Review 57(3), 368–393
1952–2008	Wu, Harry X. (2014), “China’s growth and productivity performance debate revisited – Accounting for China’s sources of growth with a new data set” The Conference Board Economics Program Working Paper Series EWP#14-01.
Colombia
1800 - 1870 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
1870 - 1923 	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P.
Czechoslovakia
1993 - 	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
Cuba
1690–1895	Santamaria Garcia, A. (2005). Las Cuentas nacionales de Cuba, 1960 - 2005', mimeo
1902–1958	Ward, M. and Devereux, J. (2012), “The Road Not Taken: Pre-Revolutionary Cuban Living Standards in Comparative Perspective” Journal of Economic History, 72(1): 104–132
Germany
1500-1850	Pfister, U. (2011). “ Economic growth in Germany, 1500–1850”, Paper presented at the Conference on Quantifying Long Run Economic Development, Venice, 22-24 March, 2011
Ecuador
1833-1938	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data). We use the growth rate between 1933 and 1938 from Prados de la Escosura (2009) and link that to the 1939 level of Maddison’s original estimates.
Egypt
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 – 1500 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011.
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Spain
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1270-1850	Álvarez-Nogal, C. and L. Prados de la Escosura (2013). "The Rise and Fall of Spain (1270-1850)," Economic History Review, 66, 1, 1-37, using their annual benchmarks
1850–2016	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2017), Spanish Economic Growth, 1850-2015 (London: Palgrave Macmillan)
Finland
1600–1860	Eloranta, J., Voutilainen, M. and Nummela, I. (2016).  “Estimating Finnish Economic Growth Before 1860” mimeo.
France
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1250–1800	Ridolfi, L. (2016) “The French economy in the longue durée. A study on real wages, working days and economic performance from Louis IX to the Revolution (1250-1789)” Dissertation IMT School for Advanced Studies, Lucca, available at http://e-theses.imtlucca.it/211/1/Ridolfi_phdthesis.pdf
United Kingdom
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1252–1700 (England)	Broadberry, S.N., B. Campbell, A. Klein, M. Overton and B. van Leeuwen (2015), British Economic Growth 1270-1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1700–1870	Broadberry, S.N., B. Campbell, A. Klein, M. Overton and B. van Leeuwen (2015), British Economic Growth 1270-1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greece
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1833-1913	Kostelenos G., S. Petmezas, D. Vasiliou,  E. Kounaris and M. Sfakianakis, (2007), "Gross Domestic Product 1830-1939", Sources of Economic History of Modern Greece: Quantitative data and statistical series 1830-1939, Historical Archives of the National Bank of Greece, Athens.
Croatia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Indonesia
1815 – 1880 (Java)	Van Zanden (2012). “Economic Growth in Java 1815-1939: The Reconstruction of the Historical National Accounts of a Colonial Economy”, Maddison-Project Working Paper WP-3.
1880-2008	Van der Eng, P. (2010). The Sources of Long-Term Economic Growth in Indonesia, 1880-2008”,  Explorations in Economic History, 47: 294-309
India
1600–1870	Broadberry, S.N., Custodis, J. and Gupta, B. (2015), “India and the great divergence: an Anglo-Indian comparison of GDP per capita, 1600–1871” Explorations in Economic History, 55: 58-75.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Iraq
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 – 1500 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011.
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Israel
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
Italy
1310-1871 (North Italy)	Malanima, P. (2010), “The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913” European Review of Economic History 15 (2): 169–219.
1871-1990	Baffigi, A. (2011).”Italian National Accounts, 1861-2011”, Banca d’Italia Economic History Working Papers 18.
Jamaica
1850 - 1938 	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307 (updated data)
Jordan
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Japan
724-1874	Bassino, Jean-Pascal & Broadberry, Stephen & Fukao, Kyoji & Gupta, Bishnupriya & Takashima, Masanori, (2018). "Japan and the Great Divergence, 730-1874," CEI Working Paper Series 2018-13, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University
1874-1940	Fukao, K., Bassino, J.-P., Makino, T., Paprzycki, R., Settsu, T., Takashima, M., and Tokui, J. (2015) Regional Inequality and Industrial Structure in Japan: 1874-2008, Tokyo: Maruzen Publishing.
Republic of Korea
1911-1990	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing
Lebanon
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Mexico
1550–1812	Arroyo Abad, L. and J.L. van Zanden (2016), “Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times” Journal of Economic History 76(4): 1182–1215.
1812–1870	Prados de la Escosura, L., (2009), ‘Lost decades? Economic performance in post-independence Latin America’, Journal of Latin America Studies, 41, pp. 279–307. (updated data)
1895–2003	Barro, R.J. and J.F. Ursua, (2008). “Macroeconomic Crises since 1870” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 255-350
TFYR of Macedonia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Montenegro
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Malaysia
1900-1939	Nazrin Shah, S. (2017). Charting the Economy: Early 20th Century Malaya and Contemporary Malaysian Contrasts, Oxford University Press
Netherlands
1348–1807 (Holland)	Van Zanden, J. L. and van Leeuwen, B. (2012), ‘Persistent but not consistent: the growth of national income in Holland 1347–1807’, Explorations in Economic History, 49 (2012), pp. 119–30.
1807-1913	Smits, J.P., E. Horlings and J.L. van Zanden (2000). The Measurement of Gross National Product and its Components 1800-1913 (Groningen Growth and Development Centre Monograph series no 5).
Norway
1820–1930	Grytten, O.H. (2015). Norwegian gross domestic product by industry 1830 - 1930, Norges Bank Working paper 19/2015. Population from Maddison (2006)
Panama
1906–1945	De Corso, G. (2013). El crecimiento economico de Venuzuela, Desde la Oligarquia Conservadora Hasta La Revolucion Bolivariana: 1830-2012. Uno Vision cuantitativa *: Venezuelan Economic Growth From The Conservative Oligarchy To The Bolivarian Revolution (1830-2012), Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 31(3), 321-357. doi:10.1017/S0212610913000190
Peru
1600–1812	Arroyo Abad, L. and J.L. van Zanden (2016), “Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times” Journal of Economic History 76(4): 1182–1215.
1812–1870	Seminario, B. (2015). El Desarrallo de la Economía Peruana en la Era Moderna, Universidad de Pacifico, Lima
1870-1901	Bertola, L and Ocampo, J.A. (2012) The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence. Oxford, Oxford U.P
Poland
1409–1913	Malinowski, M. and Van Zanden (2017), “National income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland in a global perspective” Cliometrica, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 375–40
D.P.R. of Korea
1911-1943	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing.
1990-2015	Cha, M.S., Kim, N.N., Park, K.-J., Park, Y. (Eds.) (2020), Historical Statistics of Korea. Studies in Economic History, New York: Springer Publishing.
Portugal
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
1530–1850	Palma, N., & Reis, J. (2019). From Convergence to Divergence: Portuguese Economic Growth, 1527–1850. The Journal of Economic History, 79(2), 477-506. doi:10.1017/S0022050719000056
Romania
1862–1995	Axenciuc, V. (2012). Produsul intern brut al Romaniei, Vol. 1, Institutl de Economie Nationala, Bucarest
Saudi Arabia
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Singapore
1900–1959	Sugimoto, I. (2011), Economic growth of Singapore in the twentieth century: historical GDP estimates and empirical investigations, Economic Growth Centre Research Monograph ser., 2, http://www.worldscibooks.com/economics/7858.html (accessed on 30 Jan. 2013).
Serbia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Former USSR
1885-1913 	Gregory, P. R. (1982). Russian National Income, 1885–1913, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
1913-1928 	Markevich, A. and M. Harrison (2011). “Great War, Civil War, and Recovery: Russia's National Income, 1913 to 1928”, The Journal of Economic History, Volume 71 (3): 672 – 703, table 6.
1991 -	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
Slovenia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
Sweden
1300–1560	Krantz, O. (2017) “Swedish GDP 1300-1560 A Tentative Estimate” Lund Papers in Economic History: General Issues; No. 152.
1560–1950	Schön, L., and O. Krantz (2015) “New Swedish Historical National Accounts since the 16th Century in Constant and Current Prices” Lund Papers in Economic History no. 140
Syrian Arab Republic
1820, 1870, 1913, 1950	Pamuk, S. (2006), Estimating Economic Growth in the Middle East since 1820, The Journal of Economic History, vol 66, no. 3, pp. 809 - 828
Turkey
1 A.D. Scheidel, W. and Friesen, S. J., ‘The size of the economy and the distribution of income in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 99 (2009), pp. 61–91
700 - 1820 	Pamuk, Ş. and M. Shatzmiller (2011). “Real Wages and GDP per capita in the Medieval Islamic Middle East in Comparative Perspective, 700-1500”, paper presented at the 9th Conference of the European Historical Economics Society, Dublin, September 2-3, 2011; Milanovic, B. (2006), “An estimate of average income and inequality in Byzantium around year 1000,” Review of Income and Wealth 52 (3).
1500-1820	Pamuk, S. (2009). “Estimating GDP per capita for the Ottoman Empire in a European Comparative Framework, 1500-1820”,  paper presented at the XVth World Economic History Congress, August 2009, Utrecht
Taiwan, Province of China
1820 - 1940 	Fukao, K., D. Ma and T. Yuan (2007). Real GDP in Pre-War East Asia: A 1934-36 Benchmark Purchasing Power Parity Comparison with the U.S. Review of Income and Wealth, 53 (3): 503 - 537. Trend from original Maddison estimates applied to benchmark for 1934/36
Uruguay
1800-1870	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data)
1870–2014	Bèrtola, L. (2016). El PIB per Capita de Uruguay 1870 - 2016: una reconstruccion. PHES working paper No 48
United States
1650 - 1790 	McCusker, John J., ‘Colonial Statistics’, Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Time to the Present, in S. B. Carter, S. S. Gartner, M. R. Haineset al. New York, Cambridge University Press. V-671.
1790 - 1870 	Sutch, R. (2006). National Income and Product. Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Time to the Present, in S. B. Carter, S. S. Gartner, M. R. Haineset al. New York, Cambridge University Press III-23-25.
1800-1830	Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009). “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America,” Journal of Latin America Studies 41: 279–307. (updated data)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
1830–2012	De Corso, G. (2013). El crecimiento economico de Venuzuela, Desde la Oligarquia Conservadora Hasta La Revolucion Bolivariana: 1830-2012. Uno Vision cuantitativa *: Venezuelan Economic Growth From The Conservative Oligarchy To The Bolivarian Revolution (1830-2012), Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 31(3), 321-357. doi:10.1017/S0212610913000190
Former Yugoslavia
1952-2008	Milanovic (2011). Estimates provided to the Maddison-Project
2008 -	Based on GDP and population data for their successor states
South Africa
1700–1900 (Cape Colony)	Fourie, J. and Van Zanden, J.L. (2013). GDP in the Dutch Cape Colony: the Nationals Accounts of a Slave-Based Society, South African Journal of Economics, vol. 81 (4): 467 - 490

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  • Data on global emissions has been converted from tonnes of carbon to tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO₂) using a conversion factor of 3.664.
  • Emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires in 1991 have been included as part of Kuwait's emissions for that year.
  • Country's share of the global population is calculated using our population dataset, based on different sources.
  • Each country's share of global CO₂ emissions from flaring has been calculated using global CO₂ emissions from flaring provided in the Global Carbon Budget dataset.

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“Data Page: Consumption-based carbon intensity”, part of the following publication: Hannah Ritchie, Pablo Rosado and Max Roser (2023) - “CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions”. Data adapted from Global Carbon Project, Bolt and van Zanden. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/consumption-based-carbon-intensity [online resource]
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In-line citationIf you have limited space (e.g. in data visualizations), you can use this abbreviated in-line citation:

Global Carbon Budget (2023); Maddison Project Database 2020 (Bolt and van Zanden, 2020) – with major processing by Our World in Data

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Global Carbon Budget (2023); Maddison Project Database 2020 (Bolt and van Zanden, 2020) – with major processing by Our World in Data. “Consumption-based carbon intensity – GCB” [dataset]. Global Carbon Project, “Global Carbon Budget”; Bolt and van Zanden, “Maddison Project Database” [original data]. Retrieved June 17, 2024 from https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/consumption-based-carbon-intensity