Updated daily
View our work on COVID-19 vaccinations

Page Template

We always try to begin with a short introductory text explaining what will be covered in the entry and why it is relevant. We try to emphasise why the topic is interesting to researchers or the wider public. We include here only very brief definitions of the key variables (if necessary) and provide a quick overview of the main findings.

Historical Perspective

Headline #1

Content throughout the entry is organised in “headline – text – chart” blocks.

In the specific case of headlines within the Historical Perspective section, the idea is to focus on long-run trends.

Ideally, we prioritize here long-run global and regional perspectives, and then move on to explore particular cases that merit attention. As usual, we try to cover as many countries as possible. Unfortunately, often there is only long-run data for a few specific countries or regions; and sometimes there is no long-run data at all.1

Headline #2

Each “headline – text – chart” block should aim to be self-contained, and at the same time, provide a basic sense of narrative. This often takes the form of saying something like “we have seen that XX; here we explore YYY using the same source of data”.

The priority is to make sure that each block is interesting and clear on its own. Narrative should not be discarded, but is secondary – few people tend to read the entry ‘from top to bottom’.

Recent Developments (Optional/flexible)

Headline #1

After studying long-run trends, we move to ‘recent developments’. Depending on the topic and the data, there can be multiple ‘recent development’ sections (all using ‘<h3>’ tags).

Having multiple ‘recent development’ sections might be helpful for readers because they show up in the navigation menu to the right (lower level ‘<h4>’  tags used for headlines are not listed in the menu).

Common names used for sections here include ‘Global trends in X’, ‘Regional trends in Y’ and so on.

The unifying theme is the cross-section focus: what is happening around the world today?

There is of course no sharp definition of ‘today’ – usually we refer to ‘recent’ when we are dealing with evidence from after the 1990s. But this is always a judgement call.

Correlates, Determinants & Consequences

Headline #1

After characterising ‘recent trends’, we turn to correlations and causal evidence. Again, depending on the length and complexity of the topic, we might have different sections here grouping the various “headline – text – chart” blocks.

If it is not necessary (e.g. only a couple of relevant “headline – text – chart” blocks), we don’t use ‘<h3>’ tags here.

Data Quality, Definitions and Measurement

The text discussing the charts in the “headline – text – chart” blocks should relegate technical definitions or complex discussions of data limitations to this section.

As always, we try to stick to the “headline – text – chart” structure even for this section. Sometimes, however, there are points that need to be made without charts. In any case, the idea is to split the content here in bite-sized comments separated by headlines.

Data Sources


If source is a book or journal, include the citation here.

When the URL is short, make the address a clickable link.


  • Data:
  • Geographical coverage:
  • Time span:
  • Available at: Google

When the URL is long, write the organization’s name (or equivalent) and make it a clickable link.