Mental health disorders as risk factors for substance use

This is a table related to research discussed in our entry on Substance Use.

Data in the table below shows the increased risk of developing a substance use disorder in individuals with a mental health disorder relative to those without.

Figures with an asterisk (*) denote significance at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.

Data sourced from Swendsen et al. (2010).1

Mental health disorders as risk factors for substance use

The increased risk of developing a substance use disorder in individuals with a mental health disorder relative to those without.

Figures with an asterisk (*) denote significance at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.

Source:

Swendsen, J., Conway, K. P., Degenhardt, L., Glantz, M., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., ... & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: results from the 10‐year follow‐up of the National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction, 105(6), 1117-1128.

Mental Health Disorder Increased risk of alcohol dependency (95% CI) Increased risk of nicotine dependency (95% CI) Increased risk of illicit drug dependency

(95% CI)

Dysthymia (persistent mild depression) 1.3 (0.8-2.2) 4.1 (1.0-17.0) 2.7 (0.5-15.6)
Major depressive disorder 1.4* (1.0-1.9) 1.6 (0.7-3.8) 1.6 (0.7-3.6)
Bipolar 3.1* (1.9-5.1) 3.6* (1.1-11.4) 5.1* (1.8-14.7)
Any mood disorder 1.8* (1.3-2.4) 1.8 (0.9-3.8) 2.1 (0.9-4.7)
Panic disorder 1.2 (0.7-1.9) 3.2* (1.2-8.5) 1.1 (0.3-4.0)
Social phobia 1.4* (1.0-1.9) 3.3* (1.9-5.8) 2.8* (1.1-7.0)
Specific phobia 1.5* (1.1-1.9) 2.7* (1.2-5.9) 2.2 (0.9-5.5)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 1.6 (0.7-3.9) 1.2 (0.3-5.9)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 1.6* (1.1-2.4) 3.2* (1.2-8.9) 3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Agoraphobia 1.5 (0.9-2.3) 2.3 (0.7-6.9) 1.9 (0.4-8.5)
Separation anxiety 1.4 (0.9-2.0) 2.7* (1.1-6.4) 3.0* (1.1-8.6)
Any anxiety disorder 1.5* (1.1-2.0) 3.2* (1.7-5.8) 3.5* (1.2-10.5)
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) 1.5* (1.0-2.0) 6.0* (2.9-12.6) 6.3* (3.2-12.3)
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) 2.2* (1.4-3.4) 3.9* (2.0-7.8) 3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Conduct disorder (CD) 2.1* (1.5-3.0) 2.0 (0.8-4.9) 3.5* (1.6-7.8)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 1.8* (1.2-2.8) 1.8 (0.7-4.9) 5.2* (1.9-14.0)
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) 2.0* (1.2-3.2) 2.4 (0.7-8.2) 3.8 (0.7-22.2)
Any disruptive behaviour disorder 3.5* (2.6-4.8) 1.7 (0.9-2.9) 4.6* (1.9-10.8)