Mental health disorders as risk factors for substance use

Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. This entry can be cited as:

Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2018) - "Mental health disorders as risk factors for substance use". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health-disorders-as-risk-for-substance-use' [Online Resource]
This is a table related to research discussed in our entry on Substance Use.

Data in the table below shows the increased risk of developing a substance use disorder in individuals with a mental health disorder relative to those without.

Figures with an asterisk (*) denote significance at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.

Data sourced from Swendsen et al. (2010).1

Mental Health DisorderIncreased risk of alcohol dependency (95% CI)Increased risk of nicotine dependency (95% CI)Increased risk of illicit drug dependency (95% CI)
Dysthymia (persistent mild depression)1.3 (0.8-2.2)4.1 (1.0-17.0)2.7 (0.5-15.6)
Major depressive disorder1.4* (1.0-1.9)1.6 (0.7-3.8)1.6 (0.7-3.6)
Bipolar3.1* (1.9-5.1)3.6* (1.1-11.4)5.1* (1.8-14.7)
Any mood disorder1.8* (1.3-2.4)1.8 (0.9-3.8)2.1 (0.9-4.7)
Panic disorder1.2 (0.7-1.9)3.2* (1.2-8.5)1.1 (0.3-4.0)
Social phobia1.4* (1.0-1.9)3.3* (1.9-5.8)2.8* (1.1-7.0)
Specific phobia1.5* (1.1-1.9)2.7* (1.2-5.9)2.2 (0.9-5.5)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)1.0 (0.6-1.6)1.6 (0.7-3.9)1.2 (0.3-5.9)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)1.6* (1.1-2.4)3.2* (1.2-8.9)3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Agoraphobia1.5 (0.9-2.3)2.3 (0.7-6.9)1.9 (0.4-8.5)
Separation anxiety1.4 (0.9-2.0)2.7* (1.1-6.4)3.0* (1.1-8.6)
Any anxiety disorder1.5* (1.1-2.0)3.2* (1.7-5.8)3.5* (1.2-10.5)
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED)1.5* (1.0-2.0)6.0* (2.9-12.6)6.3* (3.2-12.3)
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)2.2* (1.4-3.4)3.9* (2.0-7.8)3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Conduct disorder (CD)2.1* (1.5-3.0)2.0 (0.8-4.9)3.5* (1.6-7.8)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)1.8* (1.2-2.8)1.8 (0.7-4.9)5.2* (1.9-14.0)
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)2.0* (1.2-3.2)2.4 (0.7-8.2)3.8 (0.7-22.2)
Any disruptive behaviour disorder3.5* (2.6-4.8)1.7 (0.9-2.9)4.6* (1.9-10.8)