Mental health disorders as risk factors for substance use

This is a table related to research discussed in our entry on Substance Use.

Data in the table below shows the increased risk of developing a substance use disorder in individuals with a mental health disorder relative to those without.

Figures with an asterisk (*) denote significance at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.

Data sourced from Swendsen et al. (2010).1

Mental Health DisorderIncreased risk of alcohol dependency (95% CI)Increased risk of nicotine dependency (95% CI)Increased risk of illicit drug dependency (95% CI)
Dysthymia (persistent mild depression)1.3 (0.8-2.2)4.1 (1.0-17.0)2.7 (0.5-15.6)
Major depressive disorder1.4* (1.0-1.9)1.6 (0.7-3.8)1.6 (0.7-3.6)
Bipolar3.1* (1.9-5.1)3.6* (1.1-11.4)5.1* (1.8-14.7)
Any mood disorder1.8* (1.3-2.4)1.8 (0.9-3.8)2.1 (0.9-4.7)
Panic disorder1.2 (0.7-1.9)3.2* (1.2-8.5)1.1 (0.3-4.0)
Social phobia1.4* (1.0-1.9)3.3* (1.9-5.8)2.8* (1.1-7.0)
Specific phobia1.5* (1.1-1.9)2.7* (1.2-5.9)2.2 (0.9-5.5)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)1.0 (0.6-1.6)1.6 (0.7-3.9)1.2 (0.3-5.9)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)1.6* (1.1-2.4)3.2* (1.2-8.9)3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Agoraphobia1.5 (0.9-2.3)2.3 (0.7-6.9)1.9 (0.4-8.5)
Separation anxiety1.4 (0.9-2.0)2.7* (1.1-6.4)3.0* (1.1-8.6)
Any anxiety disorder1.5* (1.1-2.0)3.2* (1.7-5.8)3.5* (1.2-10.5)
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED)1.5* (1.0-2.0)6.0* (2.9-12.6)6.3* (3.2-12.3)
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)2.2* (1.4-3.4)3.9* (2.0-7.8)3.9* (1.5-10.0)
Conduct disorder (CD)2.1* (1.5-3.0)2.0 (0.8-4.9)3.5* (1.6-7.8)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)1.8* (1.2-2.8)1.8 (0.7-4.9)5.2* (1.9-14.0)
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)2.0* (1.2-3.2)2.4 (0.7-8.2)3.8 (0.7-22.2)
Any disruptive behaviour disorder3.5* (2.6-4.8)1.7 (0.9-2.9)4.6* (1.9-10.8)